The site UaUa.info decided to understand how kindergartens are organized in other countries of the world. We asked our compatriots who live and raise children abroad to tell about this.
The reason for our interest was the controversy surrounding the new Sanitary Regulations for kindergartens, which was adopted not so long ago. Some parents are happy with the changes and see in them a movement towards European norms. Others are outraged that the requirements for the gardens will no longer be strict enough.
We decided to find out how to raise children in countries where such free norms have been around for a long time. Are the children happy in these conditions, and are the parents satisfied.
All the mothers with whom we communicated grew up in the post-Soviet space, were brought up in our gardens, and they have something to compare with.
The first story is about the features of kindergartens in Germany. Mom of two children shared her experience,.
In Germany, after seeing two strips on the test, the expectant mother calls the father of the child, and immediately in the nursery to stand in a queue. Kindergartens in Germany are sorely lacking, especially in large cities and their suburbs.
The state guarantees a place in kindergarten to every child over a year old, but in practice it does not work. To get to kindergarten by three years is already luck.
Public kindergartens in Germany give preference to single working mothers, parents-students, families with financial difficulties or special children. Families with my mother-housewife - the last under consideration.
An alternative to the usual kindergarten is a game group preparing for kindergarten. But only twice a week, from morning to noon. A good option for a child of 1.5 - 4 years, but not for a working mother.
There is still a kind of "parking" for children. They help out when it is necessary to leave the child in a safe place under the supervision of an adult for several hours. There is no permanent team here: educators change depending on the day of the week, children - from the plans of mothers.
Recently, the Mom's Day service has become popular. In the morning, children are brought to the mother’s own apartment (maximum five), and until the evening they play, walk, sleep under her supervision.Such a home kindergarten is an ideal option for toddlers.
“Kindergarten fever” starts in February - “open days” are held in the gardens. After them, the parents, armed with telephones and addresses, are waiting for the official start of receiving applications.
And then, as in quests: the more gardens get your application, the better. And in this race two things matter: to be near, and to have a place.
The whole variety of kindergartens does not matter. Public or private, Catholic, bilingual, Montessori or Walldorf gardens, forest gardens or gardens are parental initiatives.
A child will pray before a meal, or run all year round in the forest and play under his feet, teach him to play the flute, or speak English, or cook vegetarian food — any option is suitable.
Or maybe parents once a week will need to work in the garden - to wash it at the end of the day or to cook dinner - what, you have to do it.
At the beginning of June a letter arrives, and in it is the cherished news: yes or no. The next step is signing a contract between the parents and the kindergarten.
It details the rights and obligations of both parties.How many hours a day a child spends in the garden, can he be photographed and videotaped, is it allowed to give him potassium iodide tablets, etc. in the event of an accident at a nuclear power plant?
Payment garden is debited from the bank account. There are few additional financial dues: a one-time amount per year for materials, trips by bus to the forest or a museum, a holiday magician, a photographer, Christmas anonymous contributions to kindergarten and educators.
The philosophy of upbringing in kindergartens in Germany is “freedom within borders.” This is the golden mean between connivance, when there are no borders, and authoritarianism, when there is no freedom.
Children are respected as individuals and encourage autonomy. He is free in his actions and decisions, but must adhere to clear rules.
Equality reigns in the kindergarten. When meeting and parting, his hand is tight. He eats and drinks as much as he wants, sleeps at will.
“Sleep a little after lunch?” Ask Gelli, ”I say to my daughter. “I'll think about it,” she replies.
A child is not required to share toys when he does not want to. Children are addressed to caregivers by “you” and by name can make a remark to them.
Read also:The most unusual designs of kindergartens from around the world
It is not customary to put pressure on a child by gender: “you are a girl,” “so the boys do not.” Everyone has the right to try different games and behaviors.
But there are also mandatory rules. After the game, the children clean up the toys. Washing your hands before eating and after using the toilet, brushing your teeth after eating, culture of behavior at the dinner table, ask permission before you take someone else's - necessarily. You can not scream, especially during a quiet hour when the little three-year-olds are sleeping. Aggression and violence are stopped.
State and private kindergartens are inclusive, with an obligatory quota of places for special children. This is a win-win solution - some are not isolated from society, others develop empathy and acceptance of another.
The groups in the gardens are mixed. Children from 3 to 6 years old play, eat, walk together. They are divided into age subgroups only for classes. It is believed that this stimulates development in the younger ones and care for others in the older ones.
But without the active role of educators in such groups, the mild form of hazing reigns: six-year-olds take the lead, and three-year-olds, some with diapers, are over.
Regardless of the direction of the kindergarten, the priority is the same for all - the multilateral development of the child. Every day there is one thematic lesson, not more than an hour: music, gymnastics, speech, fine motor skills, preparation for school.
Children bring breakfast from home - a box with a sandwich and a bottle of water. This is another headache for moms with morning gatherings. Lunches in the gardens are prepared in their kitchen, or the suppliers deliver them in ready frozen form.
Children walk a lot, even when it drizzles. In the days of nature, which are held in a forest or a park, you can get dirty in the ears, and this is normal.
At noon, the first “shift” ends, and the child can already be taken home. Until the evening there are few.
In the "quiet hour" children, dressed, sleep on the floor, on mattresses, and most often only three years old. Therefore, the early release of kindergartens in Germany is early, after 6 hours on playgrounds, streets, in transport - there are no small children, even if it is light.
A runny nose, cough, low fever is not a reason to sit at home. Children go to kindergarten and safely infect others. “We are all coughing and sneezing,” smiles the teacher. Quarantines are not carried out.Posted only announcement - "We have the flu / scarlet fever / chickenpox / lice / gastric virus." And now live with it as you wish.
There is no need to pass doctors in front of the kindergarten, and there is no medical staff there. Giving medicines is prohibited. If suddenly there is blood, a serious injury or injury - the teacher calls the parents or an ambulance.
Early development is not in trend. This feature of kindergartens abroad upsets many people from the post-council. Schools shout: “We do not need knowledge of letters and numbers, we will teach them. Give us children with strong social skills! ”
How to say “no”, how to defend yourself in front of a senior, to help the youngest. How to find a compromise, make up after a quarrel, how to express your emotions, respecting others. First you need to know this.
Great attention is paid to the study of nature and society: regular walks in the park and forest, excursions to firefighters, to the farm, to the store. Policemen come to kindergarten and talk about the rules of the road, dog experts teach how to handle a dog, the dentist shows you how to brush your teeth.
And most of the time in kindergarten is assigned to the game. Kids here really play a lot!
Children vzroshlenny such a system, by the school become independent and independent. “Well, arrogant !!!” - exclaim some compatriots from the Permanent Council.
Yes, in some ways these children are arrogant. For them, there is no absolute authority of an adult, you need to earn it.
And a peculiar crown of this approach is the trip of kindergarten graduates on a tour, with an overnight stay, without parents. You want, you do not want, and it is necessary to cut the umbilical cord.