How did the birth in the last 100 years

> >How did the birth in the last 100 years

How did the birth in the last 100 years

Over the past 100 years, the rate of female mortality during childbirth has fallen by 99%, and that of the infant mortality rate, by 90%, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The goal was one - to make the child born alive and healthy, and with the mother everything was in order. But you will be amazed what a huge way has been done in obstetric care since the beginning of the 20th century.
How did the birth in the last 100 years

1.

1900s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
Most women gave birth at home — hospitals were still not widely available, and less than 5% of women in the United States went to hospitals. The midwives helped take delivery, but rich families could already afford to call a doctor. Although anesthesia already existed, it was still very rarely used to anesthetize a woman in labor.
In Russia, things were about the same.
In 1897, at the celebration of the centenary of the Imperial Clinical Midwifery Institute, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, its director, Life Obstetrician Oskarovich Ott, said with sadness: “98% of women in labor still remain without obstetric care in Russia!”
“According to the data for 19081910, the number of deaths under the age of 5 years was almost 3/5 of the total number of deaths. Particularly high was the mortality of children in infancy ”(Rashin“ Population of Russia for 100 years. 18111913 ”).

2.

1910s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
Although most women still invite midwives (less often - doctors) for childbirth, in 1914 the first “maternity hospital” appeared. At the same time, doctors in the United States began using an anesthesia method called Twilight Sleep — a woman was given morphine or scopolamine. During childbirth, the woman sank into a deep sleep.
The problem was that the risk of death of the mother and the child in this case increased.
Moreover, 90% of doctors did not even receive a formal education.
In 1913, there were only nine children's consultations throughout Russia and only 6,824 beds in maternity hospitals. In large cities, the coverage of inpatient obstetric care was only 0.6% [BME, vol. 28, 1962]. Most women traditionally continued to give birth at home with the help of relatives and neighbors or invited a midwife, a midwife, and only in difficult cases - an obstetrician.
According to statistics, in the process of childbirth (mainly from sepsis and rupture of the uterus) more than 30,000 women died annually.Mortality among children of the first year of life was also extremely high: an average of 273 children died per 1000 births. According to official data from the beginning of the 20th century, only 50 percent of Moscow residents had the opportunity to receive professional medical care during hospital deliveries, while in the whole country this percentage was only 5.2% for urban dwellers and 1.2% in rural areas.
The First World War and the 1917 revolution that followed it slowed down the development of medicine in the country and caused degradation. Infrastructure was destroyed, and doctors were called to the front.
In Russia, after the events of October 1917, changes also occurred. First of all, the system of rendering assistance to pregnant women and women in labor has changed.
A special decree of 1918 created the Department of Maternity and Infancy Protection at the People's Commissariat of State Charity. This department was assigned the main role in solving a daunting task - the construction of a “new social security building for future generations”.

3.

1920s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
In almost all developed countries in these years there is a real revolution in the obstetric business.Now women in labor have often been visited by doctors, who, however, considered childbirth rather a "pathological process." “Normal delivery”, without the intervention of doctors, has now become a rarity. Very often, doctors began to use the method of dilating the cervix, giving the woman ether at the second stage of labor, doing an episiotomy (dissecting the perineum), applying forceps, pulling out the placenta and medicamentally causing the uterus to contract.
The women of the USSR were now offered to be systematically observed in antenatal clinics, they were entitled to antenatal care and early diagnosis of the pathology of pregnancy. The authorities struggled with "social" diseases such as tuberculosis, syphilis and alcoholism.
In 1920, the RSFSR was the first state in the world to legalize abortion. The 1920 decree allowed an abortion to be performed only by a doctor in the hospital; for the operation, the mere desire of the woman was sufficient.
In December 1920, the First Meeting on the Protection of Maternity and Infancy decides on the development priority of open institutions: nurseries, counseling, dairy cuisines. Since 1924, antenatal clinics began issuing permits for free abortion.
The problem of training qualified personnel is gradually being solved. The institutes for the protection of motherhood and infancy created in 1922 in Moscow, Kharkov, Kiev and Petrograd made a great contribution to its decision.

4.

1930s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
The Great Depression came to the USA in those years. Already about 75% of births occurred in hospitals. Finally, doctors who specialized in obstetrics began to help women in labor. Unfortunately, infant mortality has increased from 40% to 50% - mainly due to the birth trauma that children received because of unwanted medical intervention. The method of "twilight sleep" is now used so often that almost no woman in the United States could remember the circumstances of childbirth.
The USSR is also rolling back: the turning point was the year 1936, when the decree “On the prohibition of abortions, increasing material assistance to women in childbirth, establishing state assistance to multi-families, on expanding the network of maternity homes, nurseries and orphanages, on increasing the penalty for non-payment of maintenance was adopted. and some changes in abortion legislation. ”
Since the late 1930s, mortality has been significantly affected by the introduction of new medical technologies and drugs,in particular sulfamides and antibiotics, which can dramatically reduce infant mortality even during the war years.
Now, an abortion was performed only for medical reasons. Accordingly, underground abortions, dangerous for the life of the woman, became part of the shadow economy of the USSR. Often, abortions were done by people who did not have any medical education at all, and women, having received complications, were afraid to go to a doctor because he was forced to report a criminal where to. If an unwanted child did appear, sometimes they just killed him.

5.

1940s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
In the years following the end of wars, there has been a sharp increase in overall marriage rates and fertility rates. In the USA, the birth rate in 1945 was 20.4%. The first books in the protection of natural childbirth appear in the United States, the popularity of minimal intervention in the process of childbearing is slowly increasing. In the same years (in 1948), studies of Kinsey sexuality, which gave women the best ideas about their own reproductive system, saw the light.

6.

1950s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
November 23, 1955 by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the abolition of the prohibition of abortion" operationartificial termination of pregnancy was allowed to all women and even in the absence of medical contraindications.
The decree allowed abortions in hospitals, and home abortion remained a criminal offense. In this case, the doctor was threatened with imprisonment for up to one year, and in case of the patient's death - up to eight years.
Separately - on the procedure of ultrasound. Until a certain period, Soviet medicine did not have such opportunities, and the sex of the child, like many pathologies, was determined “by eye”: a manual examination and listening to the abdomen with a special tube. The first department of ultrasound was created on the basis of the Acoustical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences under the leadership of Professor L. Rosenberg in 1954, and only from the end of the 80s ultrasound began to be gradually introduced into Soviet medicine.

7.

1960s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
In the United States, the first monitoring of the fetal heart rate appeared. Postpartum care increasingly included antibiotics, the death rate of the mother and child began to fall sharply.
After giving birth, a woman in the United States finally has the opportunity to purchase a contraceptive pill.

8.

1970s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
American women in these years had significantly more ways to ease the birth pangs than women in the USSR.“Twilight sleep” is being replaced by less harmful methods of anesthesia, such as hypnosis, water delivery, special breathing, and the famous Lamaze method - a preparation technique for childbirth, developed in the 1950s by the French obstetrician Fernand Lamaze as an alternative to medical intervention during childbirth . The main goal of the “Lamaz method” is to increase the mother’s confidence in her ability to give birth, to help eliminate painful and painful sensations, to ease the birth process and to create a psychologically comfortable attitude.
M. Oden owned the first publication in a scientific journal on the topic of aquatic genera [Lancet, 1983, ii, 1476-1477]. M. Oden described the childbirth in water as “more natural” and “close to nature” and substantiated his conclusions with the successful practice of childbirth in the basin of the Pittivier Clinic since the early 1970s.
For the first time, they start using epidural anesthesia, which, unfortunately, slowed down the contractions in almost half the cases.
And in the same years, invented pitocin - a means to stimulate childbirth.

9.

1980s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
In the early 80s in the USSR, “circles”, popularizing the fashion for the same natural childbirth: in water or at home, are gaining popularity.One of the ideological inspirers of this method was the physiologist Igor Charkovsky, who created the Healthy Family Club. The Soviet government struggled with such tendencies.
From the end of the 80s, the ultrasound scan procedure began to be gradually introduced into Soviet medicine, although the quality of the pictures left much to be desired.
In the early 1980s, the period of artificial termination of pregnancy in the USSR was increased from 12 to 24 weeks. In 1987, it was possible even to terminate a pregnancy for up to 28 weeks if there were indications for this: first and second disability of the husband, death of the husband during the pregnancy of the wife, divorce, stay of the woman or her husband in prison, existence of a court decision on deprivation of parental rights, having many children, pregnancy as a result of rape.
In 1989, an outpatient abortion was allowed in its early stages by vacuum aspiration, that is, a mini-abortion. Began to make a medical abortion.

10.

1990s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
The 90s are a time when doctors look for a balance between natural childbirth and medical obstetrics. The idea that the better the mother feels is stronger, the better the baby will be.
In the mid-90s, about 21% of children appeared with a caesarean section, and the number is steadily increasing.
The Times journalist writes: "The increase in the number of cesarean sections in the mid-90s was due to the increase in the number of pregnant women who were prescribed this procedure before the 39th week of pregnancy, even if it was not medically justified."
Another popular trend of the 90s is home birth. Although the number of such practices in the United States in those days totaled only less than 1% of all births, this number also began to grow.
Amniocentesis appears - the analysis of amniotic fluid, during which a puncture is made in the germinal membrane and a sample of amniotic fluid is taken. It contains fetal cells that are suitable for testing for the presence or absence of genetic diseases.
The practice of dole assistants in childbirth appears, which provide practical, informational and psychological assistance to the mother.

11.

2000s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
About 30% of births are cesarean section. Suddenly, the maternal mortality rate rises (although it is, of course, very small), which is explained by the increasing problem of obesity and other medical complications.
In 2009, in the United States, the number of children born by caesarean section reached a maximum of 32.9%.
This figure began to fall only by 2011.
Some maternity hospitals reintroduce the practice of vertical labor, emphasizing that they are more physiological and safe for the mother and baby.

12.

2010s
How did the birth in the last 100 years
Vertical delivery is no longer exotic. For example, the Moscow maternity hospital No. 4 claims that they “are actively introducing an alternative method of the birth process in the upright position of the woman in childbirth. Today, vertical childbirth is 6065% of the total. "
National associations dole appear in Russia and Ukraine, more often women give birth with a husband or partner.

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  • How did the birth in the last 100 years

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