Frostbite- tissue damage due to exposure to low temperature.
The causes of frostbite are different, and under appropriate conditions (prolonged exposure to cold, wind, high humidity, tight or wet shoes, immobile position, the poor general condition of the victim - illness, exhaustion, alcohol intoxication, blood loss, etc.). Frostbite can occur even at a temperature of +3 - 7 C. Peripheral parts of the limbs, ears, nose are more susceptible to frostbite. Initially, there is a feeling of cold, alternating then with numbness, in which pain disappears at the beginning, and then any kinds of sensitivity. The onset of anesthesia makes the continued exposure to low temperature imperceptible, which is often the cause of severe irreversible changes in the tissues.
Treatment should begin immediately; the longer the interval between cold injury and heating, the harder the consequences. The patient must be placed in a warm room, take off the cold underwear and wrap in heated blankets.Hot drink, intravenous administration of heat of an isotonic solution of sodium chloride or 5% glucose, an enema with warm water. Fast warming is possible in a warm bath (temperature up to 37 ° C.), While the head and neck are raised. When the body body temperature reaches 33-35 grams. With heating in the bath should be terminated. At the same time, they begin a purposeful struggle with acidosis, hypovolemia, and hypoxia. Follow the AD (possible collapse on the basis of generalized vasodilation).