The traditional Russian bath has a long history. While in the enlightened Europe, the royal courts invented perfumes to disguise the smell of unwashed bodies and died of lice, our man performed the ritual of washing weekly. In the bath went with their families on a mandatory basis on Saturdays. This day was not chosen by chance. On Sunday, it was necessary to attend church in its pure form, and on weekdays the Russian worked hard from dawn to dusk and waited for Ban Day.
Initially, the wooden building was primitive and drowned it "in the black." The stove did not have a chimney, so a thick layer of soot covered the inside of the wall. The interior of the bathhouse of those times left much to be desired, and there was no talk of aesthetics, only functionality was important. Soaring in such a room was not very convenient, but there was no alternative at that time. Over time, the buildings became more monumental. Furnaces began to be equipped with chimneys, and the ritual of ablution was becoming more complex and overgrown with traditions.For example, in every bathhouse, according to the beliefs, there lived a special “brownie”: an eternally filthy lover of dirtying those who did not tempt him with a present in time.
Despite the main purpose of the building - cleansing the body, in humans it was associated with dirt. Here icons were never hanged and divination was carried out, which was considered unclean. Bath was placed on the outskirts, as far as possible from the house: in the gardens and "hollow places." Fire safety requirements? Not at all, like a dirty building, the bath should not be in contact with the house. Utensils from it never brought into the living room.
Steam rooms became popular in ancient Rome, whose citizens carefully monitored their appearance. On the ruins of the once great empire remained the remains of these complexes, which speak of the high culture of their creators. In Rome, the baths were used not only for washing, but also for holding debates and lively conversations on political and philosophical topics. Now the baths have a modern look, and work on their design design no less than on the interior of the house. The building will be a real decoration of the dacha.The country house does not do without this pleasant addition in all senses. Bathhouse is usually built outside the yard near the recreation area: gazebos, summer kitchen, barbecue and kindergarten. Unfortunately, combining this structure with other structures into a single complex is prohibited by regulations that regulate the minimum distance between buildings in private domains. In a typical bath, the presence of three rooms is assumed:
In various designs, the number of rooms can be reduced or supplemented. For example, if there is a direct access to the pond or pool, then in the shower (washing) there is no need. In the summer, you can plunge into the cool water, and in winter to organize a font in the ice. In some luxurious versions, there may be whole pool complexes inside. Thus, the owners provide an alternative to hot "bathing". At the site, the bath may not only be a separate building, in some cases (a small area), the owners, in order to save space, equip the sauna in their basement, in the attic or in the basement.Before proceeding to the construction, the project structure is prepared in advance. Since it is classified as a fire hazard, it will be useful to consult with professionals. Sometimes complex two-story structures are erected with a miniature fence, a veranda, a porch, a toilet, a billiard room and a courtyard. For the construction of such complexes is better to turn to a professional designer-architect. He will prepare an individual project. With their own hands they are starting construction of simpler structures. So, we will try to sort out the varieties of the baths, the particularities of their erection, and the common mistakes made by novice decorators.
The size of the bath depends on its performance. If the area of the room is calculated incorrectly, then too large a steam room will have to be heated for a long time, and the heat will quickly evaporate. When calculating the size of the building in the first place are guided by the steam room. This is the most important room, the rest are just his addition. Should consider:
Also, the area depends on the size of the site. If the building is too dense, then the bath will be small, as it should be located at a certain distance from other buildings. The most important nuance is the financial capabilities of the owners and the construction budget. After all, the greater the bath, the more draining the purse purchase of materials for it.
The optimal size for an average family is 5x5 (25 sq.m.). In such a structure there is a place for a medium size steam room, a fairly spacious dressing room and even for a shower for one person.
The capacity of the bath is perhaps its main characteristic, which is necessarily taken into account at the design stage when preparing the drawing. Layout, location of window and door openings, communication - all this will be calculated later.The smallest bath-house can hold two or three people at a time. Its dimensions vary on average from 2x2 to 3x3 and 3 on 4 meters. For a family of four or a small company to rest at the same time in a bathhouse, a building of 4 to 4 meters in size is sufficient. 16 sq.m. attributed to the optimal size, which represent the "middle ground": the construction is not very expensive, and the rooms do not resemble close storage rooms. For a large number of visitors they arrange spacious bathhouses 6x4 or 5x5 m. Buildings can have square or rectangular shapes. The steam room usually takes the farthest place, and in front of it have a rest room, a waiting room and showers.
Almost every country has its own bath traditions. For an unaccustomed person, many of them may seem exotic. Each kind of bath creates its own unique microclimate. In some, you can spend even a whole day, while others recommend visiting no thicker times a week due to excessively aggressive conditions that can negate the entire health effect. The main types include:
In addition to the above options, more exotic constructions are much less often installed: Egyptian sand baths (vertical and horizontal), Czech “beer”, Japanese sento (same ofuro, but for the whole family), Swedish bastu, Indian temascal, English from hot stones, Moroccan and indian (ancient) steam rooms.
The type of bath is chosen based on the allowable size. In a small corner of the site will fit a bath-barrel, and the Roman washing complex will require a large quadrature.
The style decision is a combination of the exterior (exterior) and interior (interior). In contrast to the design of an apartment or a house, furniture in a simple bath is used at a minimum. In the lounge, chairs and sofas are replaced by spacious benches that are installed around the table. In the steam room, the decor is used and even less. The most common option is rustic style. This interior solution recognizes only simplicity that borders on primitivism. Untreated surfaces and the most "wild" type of construction - this is the calling card of a rustic style. For decoration use carvings that adorn the exterior of the house. Baths, designed according to the principles of the French Provence, have a more elegant look. The decoration and the surfaces are an imitation of antiquity. In such a room, the furniture is painted white, and the porch is decorated with a bench with a blanket and pillows in a cheerful little flower.Antique style belongs to the "ancient" directions: he managed to keep his features, having passed the test of time. For interior use tiles, and the room is decorated with fountains and decorative columns that support the dome of the vault. As the highlight of the interior, you can use antique amphoras and statues. For country style is characterized by a touch of recklessness. In the interior and exterior use brickwork or its imitation (is prohibited in the steam room), metal elements and raw wood. Stern loft breathes unobtrusive luxury. A dressing room and a rest room are decorated with chic: expensive carpets on the floor, cushions on the benches, multilevel lighting, maybe even a bar counter. The chalet style came down to us from the alpine slopes: it is simple but elegant. In the setting prevails rough wood and wide windows, which creates almost homeliness.
In the Russian baths, the steam had a special healing effect due to contact with the interior trim of logs. Wood has “breathing” pores that exude a unique aroma with high humidity.For this reason, the baths are not built from conifers, as they emit resin. For interior decoration, it is not recommended to use artificial materials that, when heated, can release toxins: PVC panels and tiles, artificial stone, brick, MDF, and chipboard. The latter seem harmless, since their waste is used in the woodworking industry, but the adhesive substance that holds the sawdust together can release harmful substances when heated. External wall cladding is done with clapboard. Internal trim boards from thermolip (special material for the bath) or a block house. The floor is laid boardwalk or tile, and the ceiling revetted with clapboard. In order for the required temperature condition to remain in the structure for a long time, it is necessary to warm it up with high quality. For these purposes, use three layers of different materials:
The resulting puff insulation “cake” is closed with finishing materials that perform a decorative function.
When organizing lighting in the bath, two main features of the microclimate of the building must be considered:
Moisture is considered a more dangerous "enemy" of the wiring, as it can provoke a circuit in the network, which often becomes the cause of a fire. Bulbs, switches, wiring and distribution panels are selected from special options. In baths, the entire lighting system must be adequately protected from the aggressive effects of the internal environment of the building. In the washroom and in the dressing room, you can use ordinary light bulbs, and for the steam room you will have to purchase special sealed bulbs that will reliably protect the “insides” of the device. Water-proof should be the cover and body parting. The lighting in the steam room should not be too bright, as this will not contribute to relaxation.
Steam room - the central room of the bath. In it passes the main improving process and from it usually begin to design the interior. The atmosphere in the steam room is modest. The main element of furniture - shops. In primitive versions they are placed around the perimeter of the steam room.In more complex interiors perform stacked compositions that allow you to freely accommodate the whole family. The central position in the steam room is the stove, which is decorated to match the overall finish.
A waiting room can be called a “waiting room”. Here set a couple of shops, a wardrobe or a separate fenced-in locker room. His main task is to prevent the entry of cold air into the steam room. It serves as a kind of intermediate zone between the street and the main room. In the waiting room, people usually rest in anticipation of heating the room or their turn to visit. In more modest versions with a lack of space, it is combined with a rest room.
Spacious baths are equipped with washing rooms, which include a pair of showers, “tubs” with water, and sometimes even pools. In this room, people can cool off and wash off the sweat after a steam room, that is, complete the wellness procedure. One shower set in small baths. For her, they usually give out a small room where they place the booth itself, a bench and a pair of hooks for things. In very close buildings, the shower can be squeezed into the dressing room.Its walls must be decorated accordingly so that the washable is not visible from the room.
This room is a living room. Only here the situation remotely resembles the usual room in the house. The main task of the designer is to create a cozy and comfortable atmosphere for a good rest. There must be a place for sitting and lying, and with a soft surface as opposed to hard steam bath benches. Also in the living room of the bath room must be installed a table or bar counter in addition to it. For a more comfortable rest in the room you can place a TV or think over other ways of entertainment.
The tradition to go to the bath, managed not only to pass the test of time, but also to adapt to modern realities. Since ancient times it was believed that this method of washing rejuvenates and cleanses the body. The result is usually noticeable after several regular visits to the bath. The interior and exterior of the building are paying more and more attention, since it is no longer a “house in the gardens”, but a full-fledged element of the landscape design of a private plot.